Interpretation and Translation

The Interpretation Program offers a multidisciplinary approach, with a special focus placed on theory and research. Course research, as well as encouraged research, are done as ways for students to exercise theories and explore new strategies in problem-solving. The results of research done by students, faculty, and staff continually provide new insight to the interpretation field. Through its recently established Center for the Advancement of Interpreting and Translation Research (CAITR), the Interpretation Program also offers opportunities for scholars and students to collaborate on projects and promote initiatives that advance interpreting/translating research nationally and internationally.


'Deaf Studies Digital Journal'

ID: 831
Status: Ongoing
Start date: September 2008
End Date: January 2025

Description

The Deaf Studies Digital Journal (DSDJ) is a peer-reviewed, digital journal in American Sign Language and English text dedicated to advancing the cultural, creative and critical output of work in and about sign languages and its communities, in the form of scholarly video articles, original works of signed literature, interviews, reviews, and historical resources. This project will preserve and migrate past issues of DSDJ to a new open-access, technologically sustainable platform, which adheres to and advances accessibility standards in publishing through fully bilingual video and text articles, advanced interactive videos, integration into library databases, and innovative peer-review processes that support the exclusive use of sign language to produce the next iteration of DSDJ in an effort to transform scholarly communication.

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Products

ASL and Deaf Studies Department (2012). Deaf Studies Digital Journal, Vol. 3. Retrieved from http://dsdj.gallaudet.edu

ASL and Deaf Studies Department (2014). Deaf Studies Digital Journal, Vol. 4. Retrieved from http://dsdj.gallaudet.edu

ASL and Deaf Studies Department. (2009). Deaf Studies Digital Journal, Vol. 1. Retrieved from http://dsdj.gallaudet.edu

ASL and Deaf Studies Department. (2010). Deaf Studies Digital Journal, Vol 2. Retrieved from http://dsdj.gallaudet.edu

Bauman, D.H. (2017, August). Digital embodiment: Sign language publishing and the Deaf Studies Digital Journal. Presented at the Society for Textual Embodiment Scholarship Conference. University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

Boudreault, P. (2017, August). Deaf Studies Digital Journal: The Next Generation. Deaf Academics Conference. Copenhagen, Denmark.

Boudreault, P. (2018, July). Deaf Studies Digital Journal: The preservation, publication and dissemination in Sign Language. Presented at the National Association of the Deaf Conference 2018. Hartford, CT.

Boudreault, P. (2018, September). Deaf Studies Digital Journal: Publishing ASL Poems. Presented at the Center for the Humanities, City University of New York, New York, NY.

Willis, A., Codick, E., Kushalnagar, R. & Boudreault, P. (2018, July). Multimodal visual languages user interface, M3UI. Poster presented at the STM Poster Session, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC.


Case Studies of the Cognitive Apprenticeship Approach to Develop Writing Skills of American Sign Language-English Interpreting Students

ID: 3367
Status: Ongoing
Start date: August 2017

Description

Effective writing is taken to be a measure of academic development at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, but interpreter education has not provided guidance for how to develop these skills in our students. Using a case study approach, the co-investigators will focus is on the development of students' cognitive maturity and self-authorship by examining their perceptions of the Cognitive Apprentice instructional approach during their writing coursework. An ultimate aim of this study is to determine whether cognitive apprenticeship may be a useful approach in guiding interpreting students in the development of their academic writing skills and, if so, to disseminate this information to other interpreter educators.

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Deaf Perspective on English to ASL Interpreting Repair Strategies

ID: 4039
Status: Completed
Start date: November 2019
End Date: October 2020

Description

This study explores the Deaf perspective of five interpreting repairs utilized in English to American Sign Language (ASL) interpreting events by means of analyzing the group discussion amongst ten Deaf professional participants. This paper discusses various interpreting repair categorizations and highlights the heretofore gap in interpretation and translation research that considers the Deaf consumer’s perspective of the effectiveness and various impacts resulting from interpreting repairs. This study uses academic interpreting source samples and involves only Deaf professionals and Deaf Ph.D. students from Gallaudet University in order to examine the successfulness of English to ASL interpretations through the lens of Deaf individuals in advanced and technical settings. The analysis of the focus group data will focus on Deaf participants’ identification of interpreting repairs, the change in interpersonal dynamics between interlocutors and interpreters, and the feelings of trust in an interpreter and his/her ongoing interpreting work. This study will be the first of its kind to address the growing community of Deaf individuals in advanced academic and professional settings along with their perceptions of accuracy and trust regarding common interpreting repair strategies.

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Examining how Deaf translators negotiate concepts that are not conventionalized in Hong Kong Sign Language

ID: 4020
Status: Ongoing
Start date: August 2017
End Date: August 2022

Description

In American Sign Language (ASL), fingerspelling is often used to represent English proper nouns, technical words or other concepts that have yet be lexicalized. Conversely, in Hong Kong Sign Language (HKSL), fingerspelling is used on a very limited basis. As a result, sign language interpreters in Hong Kong who work from Cantonese to HKSL frequently report difficulty in relaying concepts for which a conventionalized sign has not yet been developed. This research proposes to engage with the Hong Kong Deaf community to investigate this issue. Translation data will be collected from Deaf bilinguals in Hong Kong who are recognized for their work with translating and interpreting between Deaf monolinguals and the hearing society. Research participants will translate written Chinese materials in either of these two settings: 1) A monologic environment where no specific audience is present; 2) An environment where Deaf audience with specific background and relationship with the Deaf translator is present. Qualitative data will be collected pre-, mid-, and post-task. The aim of this research is to produce a taxonomy of discourse strategies that are used by the Deaf translators and to characterize the cognitive processes that underlie the strategies.

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Language Attitudes about Interpreters

ID: 3369
Status: Ongoing
Start date: August 2017

Description

The notion of language attitudes has a place in psychology, sociology, anthropology, education, and history, among other disciplines Bilingualism and minority languages are not topics that are confined to linguistics or language studies, but are debated in a wide variety of fields, including Interpretation and Translation Studies. Drawing from data on social media sites, this study addresses the following questions: 1) What language attitudes do signed and spoken language interpreters, translators, and lay persons hold, specifically in relation interpretation and translation work? 2) What attitudes do signed and spoken language interpreters, translators, and lay persons hold about languages, specially in relation to one another's work? The aim of this project is to confront issues of attitudes within interpretation and translation and to show that they will refine and improve our understanding of how we view one another in Interpretation and Translation Studies.

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Letter or Spirit of the Law: An Institutional Ethnography of Effective Communication Access in U.S. Hospitals

ID: 3923
Status: Ongoing
Start date: February 2019
End Date: October 2020

Description

Federal legislation mandates effective communication for deaf U.S. hospital patients. Despite this directive, evidence indicates that access to healthcare remains inadequate, inappropriate, or unethical. This study employs an institutional ethnographic approach to investigate established policies for legislative compliance vis-à-vis medical professional actions and deaf patient experiences within a U.S. health care system. Participant observation, interviews, and textual analysis can isolate points of disjuncture and reveal institutional processes implicated in negotiating access. The aim is to identify systemic factors contributing to disparities reported by deaf patients.

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Sign-to-voice interpreting considering clients with differing language experiences

ID: 4019
Status: Ongoing
Start date: October 2019
End Date: September 2021

Description

This study is designed to investigate ASL-English interpreters’ management of signed texts from different sources, including individuals who are early and late/emergent learners of ASL. The aims are twofold: 1) to document linguistic patterns that are produced by early and late learners, (e.g., pronominal forms, use of tense and temporal adverbials, etc.), and 2) to examine the management of those linguistic forms by professional ASL-English interpreters. The first phase of this study will involve creation of the signed texts. We will recruit four deaf signers to tell a twenty-minute narrative, two who are native signers and two who have been signing for one year or less. These texts will be analyzed for linguistic patterns and differences and will serve as the source texts for the second phase of the study. Up to twenty interpreters will each interpret one native and one emergent signer text into spoken English. These interpretations will be analyzed for patterns for each type of signer. Additionally, the impact of preparation materials on interpretation will be investigated. The results are expected to shed light on late language acquisition and strategies that interpreters leverage during simultaneous interpretation.

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Translation and Interpretation Studies Special Edited Issue

ID: 3366
Status: Ongoing
Start date: September 2017

Description

Translation and Interpreting Studies (John Benjamins) accepted proposals for a special thematic issue on signed language interpretation and translation to be published in April of 2018. The editors bring together papers that address critical issues in the linguistic analysis of interpretations and translations that occur between a signed language and spoken or written language. The volume includes data driven papers on the spectrum between a microanalysis of one specific lexical item to the examination of a full interpreted or translated discourse. Papers may take a descriptive, applied, or theoretical approach to interpreting and translation of a signed language. The editors encourage a broad range of methodological approaches and theoretical frameworks, including qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods.

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Scholarship and creative activity

2018

Shaw, Emily. (2018, July). Interpreting multimodality between hearing and deaf interactants in a task-based exchange. Presented at the International Society of Gesture Studies, Cape Town, South Africa.

Shaw, Emily. (April 28, 2018). Back in time: The history and etymology of American Sign Language. Presented at Columbia College Chicago, Chicago, IL.

2018

Boudreault, P. & Gertz, G. (2018) Case studies of international conferences: A social justice framework for interpreting. In T.H. Holcomb & D. Smith (Eds.), Deaf eyes on interpreting (pp. 145-161). Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press.

2017

Boudreault, P. & Supalla, T., (2017, August) Sign Language Tool Kit. Deaf Academics Conference. Copenhagen, Denmark.

Boudreault, P. (2017, August) Deaf Studies Digital Journal: The Next Generation . Deaf Academics Conference 2017. Copenhagen, Denmark.

Boudreault, P. (2017, May). Technology and sign language: Deconstructing and disembodiment of academic texts. Presented at the Society for Textual Embodiment Scholarship Conference, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

2017

Cagle, K., Metzger, M. & Hunt, D. (October 2016). Interpreter Education: AA, BA, MA… Oh My!. Presentation given at the CIT Biennial Convention, Lexington, KY.

Cagle, K., Nicodemus, B. Beldon, J., & Swabey, L. (2016, October). My fellow citizens. Presentation given at the CIT Biennial Convention, Lexington, KY.

2017

Mayhew, H. (2017, March). Social Issues Education Among ASL-English Interpreters. Presentation at the Symposium on Signed Language Interpretation and Translation Research, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC.

2017

Shaw, Emily (April 2017). Winning charades or achieving common ground? A micro-analytic take on gesture in multiparty interaction. Paper presented at the Iconicity in Language and Literature Conference at the University of Brighton, UK.