Hosted by Gallaudet University, the Science of Learning Center (SLC) on Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2) is one of six SLCs funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). These Science of Learning Centers were established by NSF to support interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary research that presents new lines of thinking and inquiry into the science of learning.
A driving question in contemporary neuroscience is how the human brain and human learning are impacted by different sensory experience in early life. Much scientific focus has examined the role of sound and auditory processes in building abstract linguistic, cognitive, and social representations, leaving one of our species' most critical senses, vision, underspecified regarding its contribution to human learning. Within VL2, we focus on how early experience with a visual language changes the brain's visual attention and higher cognitive systems, language learning in monolingual and bilingual contexts, and reading and literacy - indeed changes that are distinct and separable from sensory differences (Deaf or hearing). How vision impacts learning in these domains constitutes a vital "missing piece" of knowledge in the promotion of productive, successful lives for all humans. A strong revolution in purpose derives from the strength and depth of the involvement of and collaboration with Deaf individuals in this research endeavor—individuals who rely significantly on vision, acquire naturally visual signed languages, and learn how to read and write fluently without prior mastery of the spoken form of written languages. The formal properties of visual languages, the enabling learning contexts, and the multiple pathways used to derive meaning from the printed word are leading to a better understanding of how visual language and visual learning are essential for enhancing educational, social, and vocational out- comes for all humans, Deaf and hearing individuals alike, consequently transforming the science of learning. Moreover, the identification of specific processing advantages in the young "visual learner" have already provided a significant conceptual challenge to prevailing societal views by offering an alternative to prior "deficit models." They further provide new approaches to helping all young learners capitalize on visual processes.
Dr. Laura Ann Petitto, Co-Principal Investigator and Science Director, VL2
Dr. Thomas Allen, Co-Principal Investigator, VL2
While all the work of VL2 is collaborative and interdisciplinary, the activities of the Center are focused around four resource hubs:
See in Petitto Brain and Language Laboratory for Neuroimaging
The EL2 team studies individual and group differences among children and the impact that these differences have on emerging cognition and literacy, especially in young deaf and hard of hearing children. The team conducts classroom and home-based studies and has made novel discoveries about the factors that contribute to the development of healthy and optimal literacy in a deaf child's early years.
EL2 develops, validates, and distributes new assessment toolkits that measure the language and cognitive development of young deaf and hard of hearing children. The EL2 team has pioneered state-of-the-art statistical modeling approaches to analyze large longitudinal databases and provides a host of student training opportunities to engage in Big Data statistical analyses.
ML2 innovates technologies to help improve and advance research-based translation. Malzkuhn has pioneered the creation of the world's first interactive ASL English bilingual storybook apps and a storybook creator platform, based on research from BL2 and EL2, as well as other reading and learning tools for bilingual language and reading development. Malzkuhn leads collaborations with other countries to develop bilingual storybook apps in their signed and written languages. Dr. Quandt leads pioneering research involving motion-capture and EEG brain recording experiments to understand how the use of signed language may enhance the perception of motion and action.
Ongoing cross-hub projects include collaboration with BL2 to use motion capture technology to create avatars for incorporation in a robot-avatar-thermal enhanced learning tool (Funding: Petitto, PI). ML2 keeps Gallaudet on the front line of advances in visually based learning technologies, and interactive learning experiences. It offers students rich opportunities for training in computational and digital media innovation.
TL2 translates VL2 research discoveries for application in the wide range of learning environments that deaf children experience. The goal of TL2 is to provide a gateway between the center's discoveries and the society including Clerc Center, P-12 schools, families, and homes, museums, libraries, medical clinics, policymakers, and more by sharing the research and their applications.
TL2 produces publications and resources - such as research briefs, information packages, and websites - that summarize research in easy-to-read language for parents, educators, doctors, policymakers, and other professionals. Also, TL2 will take the lead in ensuring and promoting quality and risk assessment for products from VL2 and community. TL2 also works closely with PhD in Educational Neuroscience program in training the future generation of scholars in "the principled ways in which science can be translated for the benefit of education and society" through translational activities.
TL2 staff also provides training for educators on bilingual education and language policy, and they oversee mechanisms for quality control and risk assessment for publically available products from VL2 and elsewhere.
VL2 released the first of its planned ASL/English storybook apps, "The Baobab," in early 2013. The research-based design of storybook apps will encourage children to be immersed in a bilingual environment, with ASL storytelling and active vocabulary words. Selected vocabulary comes with video components, including signed and fingerspelled words. Storybook apps are designed for the iOS, and runs on all iPad versions. More stories are forthcoming: "The airplane who could" and "The boy who cried wolf." Development is underway for an Author App Program, a website portal, which allows developers and educators to download code and assets to build their own bilingual and interactive storybook apps.
Malzkuhn, M., Baer, C. (2019). Buck and Bull. VL2 Storybook App, 2019. Vers. 1.0. Apple App Store, https://apps.apple.com/us/app/buck-bull/id1449739216.
Malzkuhn, M., Kettering, T. (2019). VL2 Storybook Creator, Software, Vers. 2.0.
EL2 Director Thomas Allen is serving as the Co-Principal Investigator with researchers from the University of Tennessee, University of Connecticut, and Arizona State University on an evaluation of the efficacy of the Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) curriculum. Funded by the National Center for Special Education Research, the SIWI project is a "Goal Three" project that assesses the efficacy of curricula developed and established through successful Goal One and Goal Two projects. The SIWI curriculum itself is developed specifically to address the writing challenges faced by deaf and hard of hearing students. Importantly, it is not a scripted curriculum but a framework to foster strong and creative writing skills in deaf students. It is designed to be used in elementary school classrooms with deaf and hard of hearing children from a variety of communication backgrounds. The project also has a strong focus on developing professional development opportunities for elementary school teachers.
Since its inception, VL2 has made an ongoing effort to develop and validate measures of ASL skill, especially those that are suitable for tracking and monitoring the development of ASL skill among young children. The researchers at VL2 have also been working to adapt and modify a broad array of neurocognitive measures with ASL translations and methods that are suitable for both children and adults. Ultimately, the goal is to build a "one-stop shop" ASL assessment portal that will provide access to the tools themselves and an online means for test administration.
Little research tracks achievement for deaf children with a view toward identifying the role of language in later cognitive and academic development. The current research, initiated in the spring of 2017 and funded by the Priority Research Fund starting in FY 2018, will contribute basic knowledge through building on a previous longitudinal study that tracked deaf children and their emergent literacy skills from ages 3 to 7. We seek to investigate whether previously observed relationships between early language skills and emergent literacy among these children predicts later literacy and numeracy outcomes. We hypothesize that the impact of language skills on early reading will persist through all stages of reading skill development, as well as cognitive skills associated with numeracy through middle school. The proposed research would follow this cohort of children for an additional three years (beginning at age 10) with math and reading assessments, and allow us to develop and test models of learning that include indicators of early visual language experience and reading, writing, and math outcomes. Influences of home and classroom strategies on academic growth trajectories for children with different language histories and demographic backgrounds will be evaluated.
The VL2 Early Education Longitudinal Study (EELS), conducted between the years 2010 and 2013, yielded a database rich in information about the early literacy development of deaf pre-school aged children as they entered school. To date, the EELS database has been utilized to study the important relationship between early sign skills and later skills in emergent literacy. Going forward, we intend to continue our analysis of the rich EELS dataset. In the past year, we have completed analyses on: the relationship of language skills to social competence; early visual language and its relationship to growth rates in reading over a three year period; early writing skills; differences in beliefs and attitudes toward deaf education among parents from Hispanic and non-Hispanic families; early literacy of children with cochlear implants with varying levels of ASL skill; and multilingualism and early literacy. Manuscripts are in varying stages of completion.
Developed as a paper-pencil checklist and distributed by EL2, the VCSL is the first standardized assessment tool that documents language growth and identifies gaps or delays in typical language development in children between birth and five years of age. It assists teachers and early childhood education service providers in planning language development activities for individual children. In FY 2017, we developed an online version that automates the administration and scoring, provides links to video exemplars to help raters understand the language element being rated, creates PDF reports, and saves the data in a national database that we have begun to use for research and analysis. During FY 2018, we began to analyze that had been collected through the online database.
One of the difficult challenges faced by researchers working with culturally Deaf participants is the recruitment of these participants. To help facilitate this, VL2 is designing a web-based volunteer program whereby Deaf adults can volunteer over the web to become participants in research projects, and parents of deaf children can volunteer on behalf of their children to become research participants. The VL2 Research Volunteer Program includes a brief online background questionnaire to help researchers to define and select subgroups of a broader d/Deaf population with specific characteristics for inclusion in proposed studies. Address information submitted to the database may also be used to disseminate valuable information about VL2 research and upcoming events of interest to a broad national constituency of deaf individuals and their families.
The NSF requires that data collected with NSF funding be made available for sharing for the benefit of future researchers. VL2 is developing an online resource for VL2 data that has been collected. In this resource, data sets developed with Center funding will be described, their code books published, and strategies for access to Center data will be presented. This resource will help ensure ongoing statistical analysis and publication from archived data covering the range of research topics undertaken by the Center.
This project is an investigation of story world building in virtual reality environments using the Oculus VR technology and systems, through Unity 3d platform. To build our "worlds," we took assets from our existing storybook apps and implemented on Unity where users can "enter" through VR. The goal of this project is to better understand the deaf experience in virtual reality and the role of signers in a 3d-built world. How do we want to define the signing 3d landscape, and design fully accessible immersive learning experiences?
This working project is to develop new and original ASL material for young deaf learners with patterned and phonological sign rhymes to create a robust learning experience. We are using motion capture to best study and identify the rhythmic temporal patterns that shows most engagement. We are interested in setting standards in nursery rhymes in ASL and to further understand the approaches in creating material for young readers, and to improve our storytelling patterns.
We are investigating sign recognition interfaces to utilize interactivity in learning. LEAP Motion is a motion sensor system that tracks the hands and implements in 3D environments. Our goal is to utilize LEAP Motion to identify parameters of different ASL handshapes that are object-specific classifiers. The purpose of this project is to create an immersive game experience, where young deaf learners will learn the correct handshapes and movements to guide the object. Through this project, we want to understand the integration of LEAP Motion and Unity (game engine) to better define sign/movement recognition that can contribute to language learning programs.
Early language exposure is crucial in both deaf and hearing children alike for vocabulary and literacy development. Hence, early exposure to sign language for deaf or hard of hearing children is imperative.
To help deaf and hard of hearing children, Eurasia Foundation's US-Russian Social Expertise Exchange (SEE) program facilitated a partnership between Austin, Texas-based Communication Services for the Deaf (CSD) and Ya Tebya Slyshu (YTS; "I Hear You" in Russian) in St. Petersburg, Russia. YTS is a parent-run nonprofit that provides resources, support, and advocacy for deaf and hard of hearing children and their families. With funding from SEE, CSD and YTS are implementing the Russian-American Project for Children's Literacy (RAP4CL).
Using innovative software developed by Gallaudet University's Visual Language and Visual Learning Center (VL2), the RAP4CL team is helping children by creating storybooks accessible in mobile apps that include video clips of signing and finger-spelling of vocabulary words, promoting language acquisition for deaf and hard of hearing children.
Siebert, R, Malzkuhn, M., Herzig, M., Mallabiu, A., and Boytseva, Z. (2017). Engaging Deaf Children through Innovative Digital Bilingual Education Resources. Panel Presentation at the Conference of Educational Administrators of Schools & Programs for the Deaf, Hartford, CT.
VL2 Storybook Apps are designed based on VL2 research foundations in language acquisition and reading to provide optimal reading experience for young and emerging Deaf readers. VL2 Storybook Apps are custom designed on a platform called The VL2 Storybook Creator, a template for Xcode, which allows people with no programming experience to create bilingual reading apps. The goal is to build a global digital library, by offering training and setting collaborations.
To achieve the mission of the Visual Language and Visual Learning, Science of Learning Center (VL2), to bridge research and education, and to support Gallaudet University's strategic goal of public outreach, VL2 has created and disseminated various research-based products, including: Parent Information Packages, Storybook Apps, and a Visual Communication Sign Language Checklist Assessment. Society benefits when products about language acquisition and development are shared with families, educators, and other interested people. However, it is important to withhold potentially harmful products from the marketplace. VL2 has created a review and evaluation process to test products for value and efficacy through a Benefits and Risks Assessment Committee (BRAC). A handbook has been created and it serves as a guide for product developers, regardless of any past connection to VL2, and a resource to the BRAC organizer and members, VL2 staff, and other relevant individuals assisting with the review process. The goal is to hand it over to Gallaudet University and to use this with other departments and programs.
By understanding how the target audience of emerging readers (children ages 4 to 8) gains awareness of new vocabulary words through VL2 storybook apps, we have conducted a study of whether children improve their vocabulary through interaction with the apps. This project will also bring new perspectives on early intervention approaches to the United States. Information collected from this study will help us determine design approaches in future app editions and type of activities and resources will be shared with parents, professionals, early intervention services and resource providers, and advocacy organizations. Seven schools and 100 students have participated in this study. Data collections have been completed, and data analyses and write-up are ongoing.
Through the VL2 Center, deaf and hearing scientists from many research institutions are engaged in collaborative studies investigating questions about how the brain adapts to different sensory experiences and early exposure to a visual language. Many of the research projects funded by the VL2 Center involve research participants who are deaf and who use American Sign Language. With the Center's collective experience we offer a set of guidelines for responsible and ethical conduct for researchers whose projects involve individuals who are deaf. VL2 is currently designing a website on which these principles will be presented, discussed, and sample ASL informed con sent videos will be available for download and use by researchers in the future.
The family information package, "Growing Together," is a collection of appealing and accessible resources for hearing parents of deaf children. It is intended to share the science of learning or research-based information related to ASL/English bilingualism. The primary audience this product is intended for is hearing parents of deaf or hard of hearing children. Other groups may use this package to share with their customers, clients, or stakeholders, such as educators, practitioners, and the medical professionals usability study, which involves focus group, survey, and individual interviews with the stakeholders. Currently, the package is going through revisions based on input from the usability study, and including recent research in the content. The parent information package has been renamed family information package (to be as inclusive as possible.) After the final revisions and publications of the package, the next step will be to follow up with another usability study to ensure the contents are accessible and comprehensible for parents and other groups.
TL2 will take the lead in ensuring and promoting quality and risk assessment for products from VL2 and community- protecting the integrity, reliability, and accuracy of science and languages used in products. By doing this, the Signwise, a quality assurance resource center, was created. With the committee composed of individuals from the community, school grades K-12, parents, and professionals from Gallaudet University, the categories and rubrics were formed. A website will be set up. This site will feature reviews of products and resources for young children from infant to school age and help parents find the right products for their children. Our committee reviews a wide range of products including apps, DVDs/videos, e-books, printed books, and websites. These products mostly feature sign language designed for children from birth to age 8 and their families. We also accept requests to do reviews.. Finally, Signwise© helps provide support for developers to produce high-quality products. Requests for consultation and review services will be offered.
Touchscreen technology makes it possible to seamlessly integrate ASL videos and English text on a single screen, and to serve as a reading device for children, providing a rich bilingual immersion for learning. The child participants in the study are being observed and asked how they browse through the VL2 Storybook App, which is based on theoretical design and research about visual sign phonology, and language and reading acquisition/development. The language, reading, and attitudes of parents are also being examined in this study. By understanding the target audience (children ages 5 to 8) and how they use, read, and interact with VL2 storybook apps, we gain further insights through observing the users to best determine design approaches in future app editions, in translating research into educational resources suitable for that age group, and what type of additional material would support parents and educators. Data has been collected, we are doing data analyses, and will write up a manuscript for publication.
The goal for the creation of lesson plans is to incorporate the VL2's research by developing and disseminating VL2's research-based resources to support educators and parents in maximizing the students' potential in learning. This involves creation of lesson plans, activity sheets, and guide to go with the VL2 Storybook Apps and providing training and workshops to educators and parents.
2016, Malzkuhn, M. In Our Own Hands: Essays in Deaf History (1780-1940). Greenwald, B., Murray, J., editors. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press. Chapter 9, Compromising for Agency: The Role of the NAD during the American Eugenics Movement (1880-1940).
Malzkuhn, M. (2016, Spring). The Role of the NAD during the American Eugenics Movement. NADmag: 28-33.
Malzkuhn, M. (2017), The Baobab, Dutch Edition, VL2 Storybook App, iOS App.
Malzkuhn, M. (2017), The Baobab, Japanese Edition, VL2 Storybook App, iOS App.
Malzkuhn, M. (2017), The Giant Turnip, Russian Edition, VL2 Storybook App, with Communication Service for the Deaf, iOS App.
Malzkuhn, M. (2017), The Giant Turnip, VL2 Storybook App, with Communication Service for the Deaf, iOS App.
Malzkuhn, M. 2016, Museum of Errors, VL2 Storybook App, Apple iTunes. Developed with Silvia Palmieri, Conrad Baer, and Benjamin Bahan.
Siebert, R., Malzkuhn, M., Herzig, M., Mallabiu, A., & Boytseva, Z. (2017, April) Engaging Deaf Children through Innovative Digital Bilingual Educational Resources. Presentation at Conference of Educational Administrators of Schools & Programs for the Deaf (CEASD), Hartford, CT.
Herzig, M., Malzkuhn, M., Langdon, C., & Holmes, T. (2018). Gallaudet Revolution: Discoveries and Research in Sign Language. NADmag, Vol. 18. (No.1), 16-18.
Malzkuhn, M. (2018, February). VL2 Storybook Creator. Presented at the Zero Project Conference, Vienna, Austria.
Scassellati, B., Brawer, J., Tsui, K., Gilani, S., Malzkuhn, M., Manini, B., Stone, A., Kartheiser, G., Merla, A., Shapiro, A., Traum, D., Petitto, L-A. (2018). Teaching Language to Deaf Infants with a Robot and a Virtual Human. Presented at the AMC CHIConference on Hman Factors in Computing Systems , Montreal, Canada.
Tepemok. (2017). VL2 Storybook App, Russian Edition (Version 1.0) [Mobile application]. Retrieved from https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/tepemok-asl/id1310852386?mt=8
Teremok. (2017). VL2 Storybook App (Version 1.0) [Mobile application]. Retrieved from https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/teremok-asl/id1310794904?mt=8
Andriola, D. & Allen, T.E. (2018, June). Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) Speed Does Not Predict Reading in Deaf Readers: Implications for Theoretical Accounts of RAN. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, San Francisco, CA. June 2018.
Rodriguez, Y. & Allen, T.E. (2017, August). Characteristics of preschool Hispanic deaf children and the educational services received. Poster presented at the 125th American Psychological Association Convention, Washington, DC. August 5, 2017.
Rodriguez, Y. S., & Allen, T. E. (2018). Exploring Hispanic parents' beliefs and attitudes about deaf education. Journal of Latinos and Education, 1-11.
Allen, T. & Fernandez, R. (2019). The VL2 online assessment system: A tool for building assessment in a visual language (Software). Washington, DC: Science of Learning Center on Visual Language and Visual Learning.
Allen, T. & Morere, D. (Revise and Resubmit). Early visual language skills affect the trajectory of literacy gains over a three-year period of time for preschool aged deaf children who experience signing in the home. PLOS-One.
Wille, B., Allen, T., Van Lierde, K., Van Herreweghe, M. (in press). Using the adapted Flemish Sign Language VCSL-checklist. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education.
Winthrop, D., Jaeger, M. Allen, T., Morere, D., & Miller, C. (2019). Identifying language delays among signing deaf children (Research Brief #12). Washington, DC: Science of Learning Center on Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2).
Andrews, J., Byrne, A. & Clark, M. D. (2015). Deaf scholars on reading: A historical review of 40 years of dissertation research (1973-2013): Implications for research and practice. American Annals of the Deaf, 159(5), 393-418.
Andriola, D., & White, B.E. (2016, May). Early language acquisition. Presentation conducted from Maryland School for the Deaf - Family Support and Research Center, Columbia, MD.
Anible, B., & Morford, J.P. (2016). Look both ways before crossing the street: Perspectives on the intersection of bimodality and bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition,19(2), 243-245. doi:10.1017/S1366728915000358.
Anible, B., Twitchell, P., Waters, G.S., Dussias, P.E., Piñar, P. & Morford, J.P. (2015). Sensitivity to verb bias in ASL-English bilinguals. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 20(3), 215-228, doi:10.1093/deafed/env007.
Brooks, R., Singleton, J.L., & Meltzoff, A. (May, 2016). Gaze following and gaze checking: Early advances in social cognition for deaf sign-exposed infants. Paper presented at the International Congress of Infant Studies. New Orleans, LA.
Herzig, M. (2016, November) School-wide Bilingual Training at American School for the Deaf. Hartford, CT.
Herzig, M. (2017). A curriculum for ASL: Empowering students by giving them ownership of their learning. Odyssey, 18, pp. 70-75.
Herzig, M. (2017, June) Engaging Deaf Children through Innovative Digital Bilingual Educational Resources Through Partnership. Presentation at National Deaf Education Conference, Indianapolis, IN.
Herzig, M. (2017, June). ASL Scale of Development. Presentation at ASL Curriculum Instruction, and Assessment Workshop, Indianapolis, IN.
Holmes, T, & Herzig, M. (2017, February) Demonstrating Key Steps in Achieving Literacy. Pre-session Presentation at Early Hearing and Detection Intervention (EHDI), Atlanta, GA.
Clark, D.M., Hauser, P.C., Miller, P., Kargin, T., Rathmann, C., Guldenoglu, B., Kubus, O., & Israel, E. (2016). The importance of early sign language acquisition for Deaf readers. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 32, 127-151. doi: 10.1080/10573569.2013.878123
Cochran, C. (2016). Are we oriented to orientation: Evidence from Articulatory Compensation. Poster presented at TISLR12, Melbourne, Australia.
Cochran, C. (2016). Toward a surface area hypothesis. Poster presented at TISLR12, Melbourne, Australia.
Contreras, J. & Hauser, P.C. (2016, March). Reading English and watching sign language provides a bilingual advantage. Presented at RIT Graduate Research & Creativity Symposium, Rochester, New York.
Contreras, J., Haug, T., Kurz, K., & Hauser, P. C. (2016, April). Sign language researchers: Moving into the future. Presented at New England Sign Language Festival, Boston, Massachusetts.
Contreras, J., Kimbley, S., & Hauser, P. C. (2016, April) Presented at the NTID Student Research Fair, Rochester, New York.
Dye, M. W. G. (2016). Foveal processing under concurrent peripheral load in profoundly deaf adults. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 21(2), 122-128.
Dye, M.W.G., Seymour, J.L., and Hauser, P.C. (2016). Response bias reveals enhanced attention to inferior visual field in signers of American Sign Language. Experimental Brain Research, 234(4), 1067-1076.
Emmorey, K., McCullough, S., & Weisberg, J. (2015). Neural correlates of fingerspelling, text, and sign processing in deaf ASL-English bilinguals. Language, Cognition, and Neuroscience. doi: 10.1080/23273798.2015.1014924
Enns, C., Haug, T., Herman, R., Hoffmeister, R., Mann, W. & McQuarrie, L. (2016). Exploring signed language assessment tools around the world. In M. Marschark, V. Lampropoulou & E.K. Skordilis (Eds.), Diversity in Deaf Education (pp. 171-218). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Allen, T.E. & Fernandez, R (2017). The Visual Communication and Sign Language Checklist: Online [software].
Allen, T.E. (2017). EL2 Presentation. Presented at the VL2 Knowledge Festival, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC.
Allen, T.E. (2017, February). ASL, fingerspelling, and letter writing as building blocks of literacy for deaf children ages 3-5. Invited paper for the 1st International Congress on Writing and Deafness (ICWD), University of Cadiz, Spain.
Rodriguez, Y. & Allen, T.E. (2017, August). Characteristics of preschool Hispanic deaf children and the educational services received. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Haug, T., Kurz, K., Hauser, P.C. & Contreras, J. (2016, January). Sign language researchers: Who we are and what we want. Presented at Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research (TISLR), Melbourne, Australia.
Hauser, P. C. & Contreras, J. (2015, October). Impact of language experience on executive function: English & American Sign Language. Presented at Undergraduate Research and Visitation Day (URVD), Rochester, New York.
Hauser, P. C. & Contreras, J. (2016, June). Effect of early sign language experience on executive function development. Presented at Assessment of Multimodal Multilingual Outcomes in Deaf and Hard-of Hearing Children, Stockholm, Sweden.
Hauser, P. C. & Hoffmeister, R. (2015, September). Key methodological issues in sign language test development. Keynote presentation at the Sign Language Assessment Workshop, HfH Institute for Special Education, Zurich, Switzerland.
Hauser, P. C. (2016, February). Cognitive sequelae of atypical sign language development. Presented at Annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.
Hauser, P. C., & Contreras, J. (2015, September). Sentence Reproduction Tests in Signed Languages. Conference on Sign Language Assessment, HfH Institute for Special Education, Zurich, Switzerland.
Hauser, P. C., Paludnevicience, R., Ridall, W., Kurz, K., Emmorey, K., & Contrereas, J. (2016). American Sign Language Comprehension Test. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education. doi:10.1093/deafed/env051
Hauser, P. C., Quinto-Pozos, D., & Singleton, J. L. (2015). Studying sign language disorders: Considering Neuropsychological Data. In E. Orfanidou, B. Woll, & G. Morgan (Eds.), Research methods in Sign Language Studies: A Practical Guide. (pp. 336-351). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Hauser, P., Paludnevicience, R., Riddle, W., Kurz, K., & Contreras, J. (2016, January). American Sign Language comprehension test: A tool for sign language researchers. Presented at Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research (TISLR), Melbourne, Australia.
Herzig, M. (2015) Observations and Recommendation to Boost Students' Reading Scores. Report prepared for Superintendent and Board of Associates, Arkansas School for the Deaf, Arkansas.
Herzig, M., Clark, D., Baker, S., & Simms, L. (2015). Psycholinguistics: Milestones in. In P. Boudreault and G. Gertz (Eds.), The Deaf Studies Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
DesGorges, J., Patterson, T., Bourne-Firl, B., & Herzig, M. (2018, March) Building Skills and Knowledge for Language and Literacy: A Partnership Defined. Presented at the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Conference. Denver, CO.
Herzig, M. & Perrodin, B. (July 2018). VL2 Resources for Developing Languages Among Children and Families. Presented at the National Deaf Education Conference, Hartford, CT.
Herzig, M and Malzkuhn, M. (2019, July). Using VL2 Storybook Apps in Classrooms and Creating New Stories! Presented at American Sign Language Teacher Association. San Diego, CA.
Herzig, M. (2018, August). Bilingual Training at Orange County Department of Education. Irvine, CA
Herzig, M. (2018, July). The Importance of Focus and Support Numeracy and Math Skills Development Among Deaf Children. Presented at National Deaf Education Conference. Austin, TX.
Herzig, M. (2018, October). Bilingual Training at Orange County Department of Education. Irvine, CA
Herzig, M. (2019). Understanding the Language Experiences and Motivations of Deaf Adolescent Latino Struggling Readers. JADARA, 52(3), 22-59. Retrieved from https://repository.wcsu.edu/jadara/vol52/iss3/2
Herzig, M. (2019, April). Using VL2 Storybook App in Classrooms. Workshop at Davila Day School. Chula Vista, CA.
Herzig, M. (2019, February). Bilingual Training at Orange County Department of Education. Irvine, CA
Herzig, M. (2019, June). Maximizing the Potential of Deaf Children: Research and Resources from Visual Language and Visual Learning, Science of Learning Center at Gallaudet University. Presented at How Sign Language Matters Conference at OsloMet University, Oslo, Norway.
Herzig, M. (2019, March). Using VL2 Storybook App in Classrooms. Workshop at Davila Day School. Chula Vista, CA.
Hilger, A. I., Loucks, T. M. J., Quinto-Pozos, D., & Dye, M. W. G. (2015). Second language acquisition across modalities: Production variability in adult L2 learners of American Sign Language. Second Language Research. 1-14.
Kubicek, E., White, B. E., & Williams, J. (2015, December). Speech, language, & hearing sciences. Presented at the National Science Foundation and Gallaudet University's Science of Learning Center on Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2) Student Retreat, Washington, DC.
Kubuş, O., Villwock, A., Morford, J. P., & Rathmann, C. (2015). Word recognition in deaf readers: Cross-language activation of German Sign Language and German. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36 (4), 831 – 854. Retrieve from DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0142716413000520
Malzkuhn, M. (2015, October). Playing With Visual Patterns. Presented at the Literary Institute at the Learning Center of the Deaf, MA.
Malzkuhn, M. (2016). The Role of the NAD during the American Eugenics Movement (1880-1940). B. Greenwald, J. Murray, (Eds.), In Our Own Hands, Essays in Deaf History (pp. 1780- 1970). Washington D.C., Gallaudet University Press.
Malzkuhn, M. (2016). The Role of the NAD during the American Eugenics Movement. NADmag. 28-33.
Malzkuhn, M. (2016, April). Sign Language in the Digital Frontier: Revolutions in Learning. Presented at the Tribeca Interactive, New York, NY.
Malzkuhn, M. (2016, February). 21st Century Learning Tools: Research to Innovation. Presented at the NSF Conference, Alexandria, VA.
Malzkuhn, M. (2016, July). Resilience through Innovation: The Convergence of Sign Language and Technology. Presented at the 3rd International Congress on Deaf Education, Bern, Switzerland.
Malzkuhn, M. (2016, March). Virtual Rights and Avatars Panel, Congressional Caucus on Entertainment. Presented at the DC Independent Film Festival, Washington, DC.
Martinez, D. (2016, November). Individual Differences in Signed Word Learning Among Hearing Adults. Presented Psychonomic Society's 57th Annual Meeting, Boston, MA.
Malzkuhn, M. (2019, July). Strengthening Deaf Communities through Sign Language Literacy. Presented at the XVIII World Congress of the World Federation of the Deaf World, Paris, France.
Malzkuhn, M. (December 2019). Creating Literacy Equity and Access through Storybook Apps. Presented at the Sabanci Foundation Seminar, Istanbul, Turkey.
Malzkuhn, M. (November 2018). The power of storytelling. Presented at the Obama Foundation Summit, Chicago, IL.
Malzkuhn, M., Lamberton, J. (2019, August). Technology and Accessibility. Panel, at the 23rd Biennial TDI Conference, Washington DC.
Martinez, D. & Pittman, N.(April, 2016). Individual Differences in Signed Word Learning, 11th Annual Meeting of the Georgia Psychological Society, Atlanta, GA.
McQuarrie, L (2016). Sign of the Times: Higher Purpose Inspires Harder Work Ethic for Students Turned Entrepreneurs. Science Contours Magazine.
McQuarrie, L, & Enns, C. (2016, April). Innovative technologies: Creating breakthrough dual language word learning games through co-design with Deaf children. Poster presented at the 32nd Annual Pacific Rim International Conference on Disability and Diversity, Honolulu, Hawaii.
McQuarrie, L, & Enns, C. (2016, February). Research to practice: Investigating the effects of a signed language phonological awareness intervention on language and literacy outcomes in bilingual deaf children. Paper presented at the 42nd Annual Conference of the Association of College Educators - Deaf and Hard of Hearing (ACE-D/HH), New York, NY.
McQuarrie, L, & Enns, C. (2016, June). Innovative technologies: Creating dual language word learning games through co-design with Deaf children. Poster presented at the 2016 International Education Conference, Venice, Italy.
McQuarrie, L. & Enns, C. (2016, June). Signed language phonological awareness: Building deaf children's vocabulary in signed and written language. Presented at the 18th International Conference on Education of the Deaf and Hearing Impaired (ICEDHI), Paris, France.
McQuarrie, L., & Enns, C. (2016, June). Cultivated transfer: Examining the effects of explicit signed language phonological awareness training on young bimodal bilingual deaf children's vocabulary learning in signed and spoken languages. Poster presented at the 2016 NHS and AHS Hearing Across the Lifespan (HeAL) Conferences. Cernobbio, Lake Como, Italy.
McQuarrie, L., Enns, C. & Purvis, C. (2016, July). "Cultivating" transfer in dual language learning: Exploring the effectiveness of signed language phonological awareness training on deaf children's sign and print vocabulary learning. Presented at the 28th Australian and New Zealand Conference for Educators of the Deaf & the 12th Asia Pacific Congress on Deafness. Christchurch, New Zealand.
Morford, J. P., Occhino-Kehoe, C., Piñar, P., Wilkinson, E., & Kroll, J. F. (2015). The time course of cross-language activation in deaf ASL-English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. Published online October 21 2015, doi:10.1017/S136672891500067X.
Olulade, O. A., Flowers, D. L., Napoliello, E. M., & Eden, G. F. (2015). Dyslexic children lack word selectivity gradients in occipito-temporal and inferior frontal cortex. Neuroimage. Clinical, 7, 742-754. Retrieved from doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2015.02.013
Piñar, P., Carlson, M. T., Morford, J. P., and Dussias, P. E. (2016). Bilingual deaf readers' use of semantic and syntactic cues in the processing of English relative clauses. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. Retrieved from doi:10.1017/S1366728916000602
Quinto-Pozos, D. (2016, February). Comparing visual and spoken language disorders: Similarities and differences. Presentation at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Washington, DC.
Quinto-Pozos, D. (2016, January). Rates of visual processing and (a)typical acquisition. Paper presentation at Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research (TISLR), Melbourne, Australia.
Quinto-Pozos, D., & Adam, R. (2015). Sign languages in contact. In A.C. Schembri & C. Lucas (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and Deaf Communities. (pp. 29-60). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rodriguez, Y. & Allen, T. E. (2016, April). Exploring Hispanic Parents' Beliefs and Attitudes about Deaf Education. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, DC.
Singleton, J. L. (February, 2016). Rethinking Child Language Disorders: Insights from Sign Language Research. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington DC.
Singleton, J. L., Brooks, R., & Meltzoff, A. (June, 2016). Gaze following and gaze alternating behavior in 8-20 month old Deaf and hearing infants. Presented at the Multimodal Multilingual Outcomes in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children. Stockholm, Sweden.
Stone, A., Bosworth, R., & Petitto, L. A. (2016, January). Perceptual sensitivity to sonority in visual language: Native signers & naïve infants. Presented at the 12th Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research (TISLR), Melbourne, Australia.
Twitchell, P., Morford, J. P. & Hauser, P. C. (2015). Effects of SES on literacy development in deaf signing bilinguals. American Annals of the Deaf, 159(5), 433–446.